Today, anyone with money to spend has a vast range of foodstuffs to choose from. Our menu choices tell us quite a lot about our lifestyle and values.
We eat what is available and what we like the taste of. In the process, we reveal something of our lifestyle and the values we hold. When we eat, we show what we can afford and what we believe to be the right nutritional choices. We cook at home, order in, go out to a themed restaurant or have a barbecue by the lake – alone or in company. And all the while, rules of conduct – both conscious and unconscious – help us along the way. In the Middle Ages, guides to table manners taught us how to behave while dining. In 1788, Adolph Knigge published rules of etiquette that are still regularly quoted today. In bourgeois circles there were rules on how to conduct oneself at the dinner table, and in the late 19th century, middle-class Swiss people had to know them in order to avoid committing a faux pas. Those unfortunate enough to see their names scratched from the invitation list lost all contact with the network of business relations.
A surfeit of choices on the menu
Today, private gatherings are concerned less with good table manners than with subtle differences in the menu: what food should be served, and what are the criteria governing the choices made? What image do you want to project: exclusiveness and luxury? Environmental awareness and actions to match? Or membership of a particular group?
As well as feeding us, food also creates a sense of identity and home: for Switzerland, it’s the cervelat – the nation’s “national sausage” –, fondue and raclette. For fans in a football stadium, biting into that barbecued sausage is a ritual. But not everyone has the option to communicate and demonstrate their values through what they eat: those on a tighter budget have fewer options. That has always been the case.
Agriculture, industrialisation, globalisation, food trends
What we eat depends on what food is available and accessible. Until around 1850, most food came from the local area. The menu consisted of regional agricultural produce dictated by the seasons and harvests. Meat was mostly reserved for feast days or, for the lower classes, public holidays and butchering days. Industrialisation transformed everyday life: labourers working long shifts in factories had no time to cook elaborate dishes and little money to afford them, leading to incorrect and thus inadequate nutrition. The food industry started producing convenience foods such as Maggi soups to provide quicker access to a healthier diet. The butchering of animals was now largely confined to abattoirs. Researchers turned their attention to questions of nutrition. New views of what constituted a healthy diet were propagated, including everything from vegetarianism to “Birchermüesli”. Post-war prosperity and globalisation led to further changes. In the 1950s, pizza was an exotic delicacy; today, wholesalers stock specialty foods from all over the world at affordable prices. At the same time, products that are local and from sustainable, fair production are much in demand. But there is also a market for cheap foodstuffs and meat from factory farms.
Vegetarian or carnivore?
For a long time, people ate more plant-based food than meat. It was not until the 19th century that Switzerland created the conditions under which sufficient meat for all could be produced at prices within everyone’s reach. By 1900, attempts were being made to improve the population’s health by means of dietary reforms, which also included vegetarian food. The idea that only protein-rich meat made people strong, and that everyone who performed physical labour – which meant men – had to eat meat, began to be challenged. The post-1945 economic boom made meat products accessible to many. Over recent years, the controversy over eating meat has heated up in the wake of science concerning climate change: meat production is resource-intensive and leads to emissions that harm the environment. Butchers advocate a responsible attitude to meat consumption and have begun offering long-scorned products such as offal and soup chickens once again. So is it right to kill animals when we can also live on a vegan diet? Is a veggie burger more sustainable than a filet mignon? It’s still a hot topic for dinner-table discussions.
Bibliography and sources
- Verein Kulinarisches Erbe der Schweiz
- Hugo Aebi, Unsere Ernährung im Spiegel des gesellschaftlichen Wandels, Bern: Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung 1974
- Felix Escher; Claus Buddeberg (Hrsg.), Essen und Trinken zwischen Ernährung, Kult und Kultur, Zürich: vdf 2003
- Adolph Knigge; Felix Goda, Der Original Knigge in modernem Deutsch. Über den Umgang mit Menschen, 4. Auflage, Zürich: Persephone Verlag 2017
- Laurence Marti, C’est pas tous les jours dimanche! Les repas quotidiens dans le Jura (années 1920 à 1950), Porrentruy: Société jurassienne d’émulation 2010
- Ernst Mohr, Ökonomie mit Geschmack . Die postmoderne Macht des Konsums, Hamburg: Murmann 2014
- Martin Schaffner (Hrsg.), Brot, Brei und was dazugehört . Über sozialen Sinn und physiologischen Wert der Nahrung, Zürich: Chronos-Verlag 1992
- Uwe Schultz (Hrsg.), Speisen, Schlemmen, Fasten . Eine Kulturgeschichte des Essens, Frankfurt a.M. : Insel-Verlag 1993
- Albert Wirz, Die Moral auf dem Teller . Dargestellt an Leben und Werk von Max Bircher-Brenner und John Harvey Kellogg, zwei Pionieren der modernen Ernährung in der Tradition der moralischen Physiologie , mit Hinweisen auf die Grammatik des Essens und die Bedeutung von Birehermues und Cornflakes, Aufstieg und Fall des patriarchalen Fleischhungers und die Verführung der Pflanzenkost, Zürich: Chronos-Verlag 1993
- Dominik Wunderlin, Zu Tisch bei Helvetia . Auf dem Weg zu einem Inventar des kulinarschen Erbes der Schweiz. In: Tracht und Brauch 13 (2006), Nr. 1, S. 6-11
- Jakob Tanner, Fabrikmahlzeit . Ernährungswissenschaft, Industriearbeit und Volksernährung in der Schweiz, 1890-1950, Zürich: Chronos-Verlag 1999
- Jakob Tanner; Margarita Primas; Martin Illi, “Ernährung”. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland (HLS), last updated 1.3.2017
Last modification 17.05.2021
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